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Question 1: Which of the following are associated with patent foramen ovale (PFO)?

  1. Migraine

  2. Platypnea-orthodeoxia

  3. Decompression sickness

  4. Platypnea-orthodeoxia

  5. Paradoxical embolism & stroke

  6. All of the above


Reference: The cardiology intensive board review / editors, Leslie Cho, Brian P. Griffin.--3rd edition. 2015. Wolter


Question 2: A 54 year old male with a history of HIV, hypertension, seizure disorder, and cardiac transplant secondary to viral cardiomyopathy presents to your office.The patient takes cyclosporine (CSA) for immunosuppression. You review the patient’s medication list with him. Which of the following medications could contribute to a subtherapeutic cyclosporine level?

  1. Indinavir

  2. Verapamil

  3. Ketoconazole

  4. Carbamazepine

  5. Nefazodone

Reference: Ogu CC, Maxa JL. Drug interactions due to cytochrome P450. Proceedings (Baylor University Medical Center). 2000;13(4):421-423.


Cardiology Question Bank


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